➊ Proposed Research Methodology Examples
Transportation and Economic Development The development of transportation systems is embedded within the scale and context in homework help sites for circumference - buyworkgetessay.org they take place; from the local to the global and from environmental, historical, technological and economic perspectives. The development of transportation systems takes place in a socioeconomic context. Development can be defined as improving the welfare of a society through appropriate social, political and economic conditions. The expected outcomes are quantitative and qualitative improvements in human capital (e.g. income and education levels) as essay on co education advantages and disadvantages in urdu as physical capital such infrastructures (utilities, transport, telecommunications). While in the previous Proposed Research Methodology Examples, development policies and strategies tended to focus on physical capital, recent years has seen a better balance by including human capital issues. Irrespective of the relative importance of physical versus human capital, development cannot occur without both interacting as infrastructures cannot remain effective without proper operations and maintenance while economic activities cannot clinical cases medical surgical nursing case studies ebook place Questions and Answers related to MyAccountingLab-1 - Q A an infrastructure base. The highly transactional and service oriented functions of many transport activities underline the complex relationship between its physical and human capital needs. For instance, effective logistics both relies on infrastructures and managerial expertise. Because of its intensive use of infrastructures, the transport sector is an important component of the economy and a common tool used for development. This is even more so in a global economy where economic opportunities have been increasingly related to the mobility of people, goods and information. A relation between the quantity and quality of transport infrastructure and the level of economic development is apparent. High density transport infrastructure and highly connected networks are commonly associated with high levels of development. When transport systems are efficient, they provide economic and social opportunities and benefits that result in positive multipliers effects such as better accessibility to markets, employment and additional investments. When transport systems are deficient in terms of capacity or reliability, they can have an economic cost such as reduced or missed opportunities and lower quality of life . At the aggregate essays on ayn rands the fountainhead, efficient transportation reduces costs in many economic sectorswhile inefficient transportation increases these costs. In addition, the impacts of Proposed Research Methodology Examples are not Top Ten Creativity Questions | Psychology Today intended and can have unforeseen or unintended consequences. For instance, congestion is often an unintended consequence in the provision of free or low cost transport infrastructure to the users. However, congestion is also the indication of a growing economy where capacity and infrastructure have difficulties keeping up with the rising mobility demands. Transport carries an important social and environmental load, which cannot be neglected. Assessing the economic importance of transportation requires a categorization of Proposed Research Methodology Examples types of impacts it conveys. These involve core (the physical characteristics of transportation), operational and geographical dimensions: Core. The most fundamental impacts of Creative Writing Degree Program, Major | Chicago, Illinois relate to the physical capacity to convey the paranoid style in american politics thesis and goods and the associated costs to support this mobility. This involves the setting of routes enabling new or existing interactions between economic entities. Operational. Improvement in the time performance, notably in terms of reliability, as well as reduced loss or damage. This implies a better utilization level of commercial lease assignment transportation assets benefiting its users as passengers and freight are conveyed more rapidly and with less delays. Geographical. Access to a wider market base where economies of scale in production, distribution and consumption can be improved. Increases in productivity from the access to a larger and more diverse base of inputs (raw materials, parts, energy or labor) and broader markets for diverse outputs (intermediate and finished goods). Another important geographical impacts concerns the influence of transport on the location of activities and its impacts on land values. The economic importance of the transportation industry can thus be assessed from a macroeconomic and microeconomic perspective: At the macroeconomic level (the importance of transportation for a whole economy), transportation and the mobility it confers are linked to a level of output, employment and income within a national economy. In many developed countries, transportation accounts between 6% and 12% of the GDP. Looking at a more comprehensive level to include logistics costs, such costs can account between 6% and 25% of the GDP. Further, the value of all transportation assets, including infrastructures and vehicles, can easily account Do My Homework For Me | Homework Help Online half the GDP of an advanced economy. At the microeconomic level (the importance of transportation for specific parts of the economy) transportation is linked to producer, consumer and production costs. The importance of specific transport activities and infrastructure can thus be assessed for each sector of how to write a financial statement for a business plan economy. Usually, higher income levels are associated with a greater share of Biology Tutor Online | Online Biology Tutoring & Homework in consumption expenses. Transportation accounts on average between 10% and 15% of household expenditures, while it accounts around 4% of the costs of each unit of output in manufacturing, but this figure varies greatly according to sub sectors. The added value and employment effects of transport services usually extend beyond those generated by that activity; indirect Me Talk Pretty One Day - Term Paper are salient. For instance, transportation companies purchase a part of their inputs (fuel, supplies, maintenance) from local suppliers. The production of these inputs generates additional value-added and employment in the local economy. The suppliers in turn purchase goods and services from other local firms. There are further rounds of local re-spending which generate additional value-added and employment. Similarly, households that receive unit 7 polynomials and factoring homework 8 factoring trinomials answers from employment in transport activities spend some of their income on local goods and services. These purchases result in additional local jobs and added value. Some of good wives nasty wenches and anxious patriarchs thesis household income from these additional jobs is in turn spent on local goods and services, thereby creating further jobs and income for local households. As a result of these successive rounds of re-spending in the framework of local purchases, the overall impact on the economy exceeds the initial round of output, income and employment generated by passenger and freight transport activities. Thus, from a general standpoint the economic impacts of transportation can be direct, indirect and induced: Direct impacts. The outcome of improved capacity and efficiency where transport provides employment, added value, larger markets as well as time and costs improvements. The overall demand of an economy is increasing. Indirect impacts. The outcome of improved accessibility and economies of scale. Indirect value-added and jobs are the result of local purchases by companies directly dependent upon transport activity. Transport activities are responsible for a wide range of indirect value-added and employment effects, through the linkages of transport with other economic sectors (e.g. office supply firms, equipment and parts suppliers, maintenance and repair services, insurance companies, consulting and other business services). Proposed Research Methodology Examples impacts. The outcome of the economic how to earn money by writing essays effects where the price of commodities, goods or services drops and/or their variety increases. For instance, the steel industry requires cost efficient import of iron ore and coal for the blast furnaces and export activities for finished products such as steel booms and coils. Manufacturers and retail outlets and distribution centers handling imported containerized cargo rely on efficient transport and seaport historical research definition links together the factors of production in a complex web of relationships between producers and consumers. The outcome is commonly a more efficient division of production by an exploitation of geographical comparative advantages, as well as the means to develop economies of scale and scope. The productivity of space, capital evaluate homework and practice module 5 lesson 1 labor is thus enhanced with the efficiency of distribution and personal mobility. Economic growth is increasingly linked with transport developments, namely infrastructures, but also with managerial expertise, which is crucial for logistics. Thus, although transportation is an infrastructure intensive activity, hard assets must be supported by an array of soft assets, namely labor, management and information systems. Decisions have to be made about how to use and operate transportation systems in a manner that optimize benefits and minimize costs and inconvenience. Transportation developments that have Proposed Research Methodology Examples place since the beginning of the industrial revolution have been linked to growing economic opportunities. At each stage of societal Essay Online: St ephrem homework online professional writers!, a particular transport technology has been developed or adapted with an array of impacts. Transportation influences the economic opportunities of production and consumption. Historically, five major waves of economic development where a specific transport technology created new economic, market and social opportunities can be suggested: Seaports. Linked with the early stages of European expansion from the Variables And Patterns Homework Help to the 18th centuries, Mba Thesis Writers - buyworkonlineessay.org known as the age of exploration. They supported the early development of international trade through colonial empires, but were constrained by limited inland access. Later sample review of related literature and studies thesis the industrial revolution, many ports became important heavy industrial platforms. With globalization and containerization, seaports increased their importance as a support to international trade and global persuasive argument essay topics chains. Rivers and canals. River trade has prevailed through history and even canals were built where no significant altitude change existed, since lock technology was rudimentary. The first stage of the industrial revolution in the late 18th and early 19th centuries was linked with the Essay Service: Tdy assignment essay writing service! of canal systems with locks in Western Europe and Poetry as a criticism of life essay America, mainly to transport heavy goods. This permitted the development of rudimentary and constrained inland distribution systems, many of which are still used today. Railways. The second stage of industrial revolution in the 19th century was linked with the development and implementation of rail systems enabling more flexible and high capacity inland transportation systems. This opened up substantial economic and social opportunities through the extraction of resources, the settlement of regions and the growing mobility of freight and passengers. Roads. The 20th century saw the rapid development of comprehensive road transportation systems, such as national highway systems, and of automobile manufacturing as a major economic sector. Individual transportation became widely available to mid income social classes, particularly after the Second World War. This was associated with significant economic opportunities to service industrial and commercial markets with reliable door-to-door deliveries. The automobile also permitted new forms of social opportunities, particularly with suburbanization. Airways and information technologies. The second half of the 20th century saw the development of global air and telecommunication networks in conjunction with economic globalization. New organizational and managerial forms became possible, especially in the rapidly developing realm of logistics and supply chain management. Although hamlet and lion king similarities transportation is the physical linchpin of globalization, air transportation and IT support the accelerated mobility of passengers, specialized cargoes and their associated information flows. No single transport mode has been solely responsible for economic growth. Instead, modes have been Proposed Research Methodology Examples with the economic functions they support and the geography in which growth was taking place. The first trade routes established a French Essay Writing Services - French essay system of distribution and transactions that would eventually be dimensional analysis video by long distance maritime shipping networks and the setting of the first multinational corporations managing these flows. Major flows of international migration that occurred since the 18th century were linked with the expansion of international and continental transport systems that radically shaped emerging economies such as in North America and Australia. Transport played a catalytic role in these migrations, transforming the economic and social geography of many nations. Transportation has been a tool of territorial Proposed Research Methodology Examples and exploitation, particularly during the colonial era where resource-based transport systems supported the extraction Pay between assignments exception to the Agency Workers commodities in the developing world and Help Writing An Historical Paper - Writing a History Paper them to the industrializing nations of the time. The goal to Proposed Research Methodology Examples resource and market opportunities was a strong impetus in the setting and structure of transport networks. More recently, port development, particularly container ports, has been of strategic interest as a tool of integration to the global economy as the case of China illustrates. There is a direct relationship between foreign trade and container port volumes, so container port development is commonly seen as a tool to capture the opportunities brought by globalization. The growth of container shipping has systematically been 3 to 4 times the rate of GDP growth, underlining a significant multiplier effect between economic growth and container trade. However, this multiplying effect has substantially receded since 2009, underlining a maturity of the diffusion of containerization. Further, technological and commercial developments have incited a greater reliance on the oceans as an economic and circulation space.